Jeff Davis County Deputy Jerry Walker says 36-year-old Joseph Magnano, an artist living in Waco, was stopped Tuesday by a state trooper on Highway 287 between Electra and Iowa Park.
He was arrested on a criminal mischief warrant out of Jeff Davis County.
The art object Prada Marfa, called by its creators a "pop architectural land art project," was created in 2005.
Last week, the art was defaced and authorities believe Magnano plastered it with posters and spray painted the sides in blue. The awnings had items hanging on them and were ripped along the front.
Various quotes, song lyrics and other writings were pasted all over the building.
Restoration costs are estimated to be at least $10,000. Prada Marfa is a joint art project with Ballroom Marfa and a popular stop for travelers.
Officials say Magnano posted $20,000 bond in Wichita County.