Winter Driving Preparedness

The first step to driving carefully during the winter season is to always be aware of changing weather conditions from your starting location to your destination. We offer a variety of tips to make sure your winter road travel is safe.

Planning a drive during winter weather conditions? Stay up to date on the latest weather information for your drive, including forecasted conditions and severe alerts along the road. Before you start sorting out the details for your trip, there are some important winter weather terms that you should get yourself familiar with.

Watches and Warnings

Winter Storm Watch

This product is issued by the National Weather Service when there is a potential for heavy snow or significant ice accumulations, usually at least 24 to 36 hours in advance. The criteria for this watch can vary from place to place.

Winter Storm Warning

This product is issued by the National Weather Service when a winter storm is producing or is forecast to produce heavy snow or significant ice accumulations. The criteria for this warning can vary from place to place.

Blizzard Warning

Issued for winter storms with sustained or frequent winds of 35 mph or higher with considerable falling and/or blowing snow that frequently reduces visibility to 1/4 of a mile or less. These conditions are expected to prevail for a minimum of 3 hours.

Car Maintenance

Make sure to prepare your vehicle before the winter season begins. The following handy steps will help you ensure that your vehicle is safe to drive during winter weather.

  1. Check your brakes, transmission, and tires
  2. Check that your battery and ignition system is in top condition, and that battery terminals are clean
  3. Check radiator coolant and sturdiness of hoses and belts
  4. Check your anti-freeze and thermostat to avoid freezing
  5. Check your windshield wipers and de-icing washer fluid
  6. Check your headlights, tail and brake lights, blinkers and emergency flasher
  7. Check your exhaust system, heater and defroster
  8. Check fuel and air filters
  9. Check your oil and power steering fluids
  10. Properly lubricate door locks that may be prone to freezing

Driving Safety

  • Before beginning your trip, check the current road conditions and weather forecast. For statewide highway information 24 hours a day checkout your state's Department of Transportation
  • Keep your car's windows, mirrors and lights clear of snow and ice
  • Buckle up
  • Allow yourself plenty of time to make it to your destination
  • Be aware of sleet and freezing rain
  • Be aware of potentially icy areas
  • Brake early and slowly and avoid slamming on the brakes
  • Keep a safe distance of at least five seconds behind other vehicles and trucks that are plowing the road
  • When driving on ice and snow, do not use cruise control and avoid abrupt steering maneuvers
  • When merging into traffic, take it slow -- Sudden movements can cause your vehicle to slide
  • Don't pass a snowplow or spreader unless it is absolutely necessary -- treat these as you would emergency response vehicles
  • Keep an emergency winter driving kit in your car
  • Maintain at least a half tank of gas during the winter season. This is good for emergency preparedness and it keeps the fuel line from freezing.
  • Most importantly, drive smart!

Winter Driving Safety Kit

Blankets or a sleeping bag

Flashlight or battery-powered lantern, with extra batteries

Battery-powered radio

Jumper or booster cables

Emergency flares


Extra clothing, such as boots, hats, and mittens

A shovel and rope

Tow chain

Bottled water or juice, and nonperishable high-energy foods

First-aid kit with necessary medications and pocket knife

Road salt, sand, or non-clumping cat litter for tire traction

A cell phone and car charger

Ice scraper and snow brush or small broom

Spare tire, tire repair kit, and pump

Deicing Agents

The Department of Transportation applies several materials to roads to assist with snow removal or to improve vehicle traction. While these materials may vary from state to state, they generally include the following.

Note: De-icing chemicals such as sodium chloride and calcium chloride are very detrimental to gravel-surfaced and surface-treated roads. Chemicals are used very sparingly on these types of roads and only when absolutely necessary.

Sodium Chloride: For snow and ice control, sodium chloride ("Salt") is the most plentiful and inexpensive de-icer. When salt is applied, it creates brine, which keeps snow and ice from bonding to the pavement. Salt is effective to temperatures of about 27 degrees F and above.

Calcium Chloride: A more expensive de-icing chemical, calcium chloride is most often mixed with salt to provide some moisture so the chemical reaction that causes melting can take place. This chemical is used when temperatures fall into the low 20s because at those temperatures, moisture isn't present to help salt start the melting process. In liquid form, calcium chloride provides quicker action.

Abrasives: Small gravel or sand that can't melt snow or ice, such as non-clumping cat litter. Often, abrasives are mixed with salt to provide additional traction and lessen the cost of applying chemicals. Abrasives can be used on roads generally not treated with chemicals.